(See the end of this page for Acronyms or use the Pop Out of Floor Testing and Slip Injury Terminology (suitable on PC's only and not on phones)
In the UK, Europe and worldwide, Legislation States That Floor Surfaces Will Be Safe For Users, i.e., customers, visitors, staff, residents etc. including the disabled. In the UK, floor safety is governed by the UK HSE (Health and Safety Executive) who in turn rely on various standards and guidelines, the majority of which are as discussed below
Note - EN-16165 does not cover Roads and Airfields - See BS-EN-13036-4
Issued in Dec 2021, EN-16165, has become the new UK and European Standard for Pedestrian Floor Testing (fully supported by the UK HSE).
EN-16165 replaces the following mainstay of floor testing standards but many other standards listed further on will also be subsumed into EN-16165.
There are slight differences in the value of the Rubber Slider Values in EN-16165 compared to its predecessor BS-7976-2 (The latter due to be suspended). EN-16165 promotes use of rubber slider #57 and #96 as opposed to #55 and #96 in BS-7976-2. However, the UK HSE and upcoming issue of UKSRG Guidelines (above Issue 5) will only list and promote use of #55 and #96 sliders; this is believed to do with the ability to obtain in the UK other than #55 and #96 sliders in the post Brexit / Covid world.
|Rubber Slider (Note 1)
|BS EN 16165
|#55 (Note 2)
|#96 (Note 2)
|#59 (Note 3)
Note 1 - The number - e.g., #55, refers to the IRHD or 'International Rubber Hardness Degree'. The lower the number, the ‘Softer’ the rubber compound
Note 2 – Produced by Smithers (Formerly RAPRA UK - Rubber and Plastic Research Association)
Note 3 - Produced by BAM Germany (Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und prüfung) also known as the Federal Institute for Material Research and Testing
The UKSRG GUIDELINES is the chief text used in the UK for a detailed guide to conducting floor and road testing. The UKSRG is an assembly of independent members from industry, experts within flooring and floor testing and actively supported by the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE).
The guide is fully recognised in UK courts of law in Slip Injury Claims.
The UKSRG Guidelines bring together test method criteria data from British and European standards to effectively Conduct Floor Slip Resistance Testing. The forthcoming issues (Above issue 5) of the UKSRG Guidelines will be integrated in 2022 with EN-16165.
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Listed sequentially below are other British and European standards covering the topics of Floor Slip Resistance Testing
This standard informs products made from concrete will provide acceptable floor slip resistance throughout except where a major proportion of the aggregate has been exposed on the surface. Wet Floor Sample Testing is conducted with the Pendulum Test Equipment with a Slider in the Range 53 To 65 after the sample has been soaked for a defined period. The test results are the mean (average) of 2 tests carried out at 180° to each other. The Unpolished Slip Resistance Value (USRV) is the average (mean) pendulum Test Value (PTV) obtained on 5 specimens. There is no minimum PTV specified in the specification so it is assumed it will follow the UK Laws on Floor/Road Safety or the specifications of local Councils etc .
Carried out using a Pendulum Test with a Slider 55 Rubber as a wet test only, using the method described in BS EN 1423, which states the surface should be greater than 35 PTV when wet when the surface is horizontal or sloping less than 6 degrees but check with the specifier as requirements differ depending on application. Note that any Floor Slope will adversely affect the ability to resist slip by a nominal 1.75 PTV per degree.
Free Data on BS-EN-1341 available (2022) at https://nobelcert.com/DataFiles/FreeUpload/EN%201341-2012.pdf
|Pendlum Test Value
|Greater or Equal to 35 PTV
|Greater or Equal to 45 PTV
|GReater or Equal to 55 PTV
This standard unusually gives the choice of: -
From the angle of slip of the ramp test the surfaces are categorised as follows:
|Coefficient of Friction
|Pendulum Test Value
|Floors unsuitable for Wet Conditions
|Less than 0.4
|Less than 40 PTV
|Slip Resistant Floor Surfaces
|Between 0.4 and less than 0.6
|Between 40 and less than 60 PTV
|Enhanced Slip Resistant Floor Surfaces
|Greater than 0.6
|Greater than 60 PTV
NOTE THAT - BS 7976 Part 1 (Build), Part 2 (Testing) and Part 3 (Calibration) shall be replaced by the introduction of BS-EN 16165 in 2022
BS 7976-2 describes the Method of Using The Pendulum Testing Equipment and has been the most commonly used standard in the UK for decades used to test the slip resistance of pedestrian and road surfaces (as well as BS-13036-4).
It has also been a principal document underpinning UKSRG Guidelines at issues 1 to 5. At Issue 6, EN 16165 will become the underpinning standard.
This is a Ramp Test where a bath mat is placed on an acrylic bath surface on the ramp carried sprayed with a contaminant of 0.01% soap solution. Two barefoot test two operators walk in a controlled manner at a set pace over a one metre distance of the surface under test. The operators twice repeat taking four half gait steps forwards and backwards to ascertain of an operator slips Where no slip occurs, the ramp angle is increased upwards by one degree and the process is repeated until a slip occurs, or until the bath mat no longer adheres to the acrylic surface.
The final ramp angle arrived at determines the class as: -
|Between 14 and 19 Degrees
|20 Degrees of Greater
The Requirements standard for natural stone used for modular tiles referring to BS-EN 16165 as the test method for measuring slip resistance (formerly BS-EN 14321)
This is a Pendulum Test which uses Rubber slider #96 or slider #57 testing in the wet only and in only one direction (direction of traffic or as close to the direction of traffic). It is used for slip (pedestrians) and skid (vehicles) resistance. BS-13036-4 is not often used in the UK due to the unavailability of Slider #57, though slider #55 could be used if the Customer accepts it. In respect to the Pendulum Testing element, BS-7976-2 and EN-16165 and UKSRG Guidelines say similar things as BS-EN-13036 but use Pendulum Rubber Slider 96 and a Slightly Softer Slider 55 instead.
This standard has a choice of two slip tests and Pass Criteria: -
Shod Test to achieve BS-EN-13845 ESf (Enhanced Slip Resistance Footwear)
Consists of: -
1. Pendulum Test Result of greater of equal to 36 PTV
2. Ramp Test Result of greater or equal to 20 degrees of ramp slope
Barefoot Test to achieve BS-EN-13845 ESb (Enhanced Slip Resistance Barefoot).
Consists of: -
1. Pendulum Test conducted to BS-EN-16165 fitted with a IRHD 55 Slider
2. Ramp Test using a contaminant of 0.1% soap solution sprayed onto the surface at a rate of 6 litres per minute.
1. Pendulum Test Result of greater of equal to 36 PTV
2. Ramp Test Result of greater or equal to 15 degrees of ramp slope
Ramp Test Method (As part of BS-EN-13845)
In the ramp test two operators walk over a one metre distance of the surface under test at a set pace in a controlled manner. The operators conduct 2 sets of four half gait steps forwards and backwards. If there is no slip the angle of the surface is raised by approximately one degree and the process is repeated until a slip occurs. Further detailed information may be found in the Publication issued by Altro Safety Flooring
This test uses a tribometer with rubber and leather sliders in the DRY floor condition only. A minimum requirement of 0.3 Coefficeint of Friction (Equal to 30PTV on the Pendulum Test) is required For CE marking. This standard to be superseded by EN 16165.
This test is intended for natural stone flooring used in buildings. The test is carried out using a Pendulum Test in the dry and the wet states with a 55-slider rubber; the wet test is carried out after soaking the samples in water. Six specimens are tested. Each specimen tested twice in directions at 180° to each other.
It is unknown if this will be superseded by EN 16165; we know this test is still conducted
Slip resistance is a declared value based on EN-16165.
Floor Pendulum Test using Slider 55 usually carried out in the dry but there is an annex for wet testing.
Test method for the determination of shoe/surface friction of synthetic sports surfaces and can be used for the assessment of indoor and outdoor sports surfaces but not suitable for long pile synthetic turf surfaces.. This is a Pendulum Test in the dry only using a slider with a hardness (IRHD) of 55 ± 3, which means EN-16165 and UKSRG Guidelines are suitable.
TO BE SUPERSEDED BY EN 16165 in 2021/2022.
Two different operators with bare feet walk in a controlled manner over a one metre distance of the floor surface under test. The operators twice taking four half gait steps forwards and backwards. If there is no slip, the angle of the surface is raised by approximately one degree and the process is repeated until slip occurs. A contaminant of a soap solution is sprayed onto the surface at a rate of 6 litres per minute.
The angle of the ramp from horizontal when the slip occurs categorises the surface as:
|Degrees of Ramp Slope
|Greater or Equal to 12 degrees of slope,
|Greater or Equal to 18 degrees of slope
|Greater or Equal to 24 degrees of slope
It is important to recognise, there is information available on line that the ABC ratings can be aligned with the Pendulum Test Values (PTV). This is incorrect, there is NO direct correlation between this test and the pendulum test. It is therefore always highly recommended to also have the On-Site Floor pendulum Testor Floor Sample Pendulum Test whenever an ABC rating surface has been selected.
TO BE SUPERSEDED BY BS-EN 16165 IN 2021 / 2022
Two different operators with feet shod in standard boots walk in a controlled manner over a one metre distance of the floor surface under test. The operators twice taking four half gait steps forwards and backwards. If there is no slip, the angle of the surface is raised by approximately one degree and the process is repeated until slip occurs. A contaminant of oil is sprayed onto the surface.
|Degrees of Ramp Angle
|Floor Safety Suitability
|Will achieve 36 PTV in a test?
|6° up to 10°
|Over 10° up to 19°
|Over 19° up to 27°
|Depends on PTV Result
|Over 27° up to 35°
*Note that any Floor Slope requires an additional 1.75 PTV
It is important to recognise, there is information available on line that the ABC ratings can be aligned with the Pendulum Test Values (PTV). This is incorrect, there is NO direct correlation between this test and the pendulum test. It is therefore always highly recommended to also have the On-Site Floor pendulum Test or Floor Sample Pendulum Test whenever an R-rating surface has been selected.
(CIRIA = Construction Industry Research and Information Association)
Commissioned by the UK HSE, the guide informed how floor slips and trips might be reduced. The publication is aimed at designers, flooring specifiers, architects & managers. The publication considers the science of slips and falls, contamination, footwear, flooring materials and cleaning and environment issues. Formulation of the Slip Potential Model promoted by the UK HSE and in the UKSRG Guidelines occurred as a result of this piece of work.
Part 1 (External Environment)
Part 2 (Internal Environment)
BS-8300 covers design, build and management of the built environment.
The recommendations given apply mainly to new buildings, but can also be used when assessing the accessibility and usability of existing buildings and, where practicable, as a basis for their improvement. But BS-8300 does not apply to individual dwellings, or to residential buildings (See BS-EN 9266)
It includes Slip Potential Characteristics of treads, ramp surfaces and floor finishes floors, in a manner inclusive for all people including the physically and neuro disabled irrespective of the impairment. The standard is aimed at officers in councils, planning, access, design, building control and architects, interior designers and landscape designers.
This standard is for use with new or existing dwellings of accessible and adaptable general needs housing and improving existing housing. The standard covers external access routes to blocks of flats or individual houses, car parking, common circulation areas (in blocks of flats), circulation areas within dwellings, and the provision of key rooms / facilities.
The Code of Practice has recommendations on how to design accessible and adaptable general needs housing, in the form of flats or individual houses for the impaired and disabled and considers floor surfaces, ramps, stairs and lifts.
The standard is aimed at Local government and council officers in planning, access, design, conservation and building control and private sector counterparts such as Landscape designers. Architects, Interior designers. Also see BS 8300.